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Ruth DeSouza

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[00:00:00] This podcast is brought to you by pride in, in association with the people of color decolonization, Hawaii. [00:00:10] What I'd like to do is I've got approximately an hour, I believe. And what I'd like to do is talk to you a bit about my PhD research, which I completed last year. [00:00:25] What doesn't kill you makes you stronger, or something, you know, Dr. Dr. Ruth, and is always willing to give advice. [00:00:36] I might have to be [00:00:37] careful with what I say, hey. [00:00:41] And so what I'd like to do is sort of share with you how I came to do the research and some of the framing around [00:00:50] the research [00:00:51] and why I chose those ways of doing things. And then what I'd like to do is actually give you the actual stuff that women have seen. And the thing that new Cisco said, and I just like to divide us into groups, get people talking, and then bring you all together and then have a talk about that. So I was thinking of using that our in that way. Does that sound right? And so it's going to sound a little bit teacher Lee at the beginning. But I'd really liked it to be a conversation. And from my own experience, it's kind of like if one person doesn't understand something, usually more than one don't. So if there's anything that doesn't make sense, so I'd be really happy for it to be a conversation rather than me talking about something that you don't know what I'm talking about. Does that make sense? So [00:01:39] yes, so what I'd like to talk about is [00:01:43] my field is maturity. And it's actually, it's actually mental health and its maturity and its migration. So one of the things that I've decided to do for my PhD, I was working at National Women's Hospital, an Auckland. And what I decided was, I'd been working in mental health for about 15 years by that point. And I thought, I want to go and see some happy endings, I want to go and see, you know, be in a setting where I can make a difference to people. So I went to work on a postnatal ward. And one of the things that really shocked me was the ways in which rationalized Kier [00:02:22] was actually quite harmful to women and the babies. And at the time, there were lots of women from Asia who were using services more and more. And I became quite concerned about the sort of taken for granted ways in which we delivered care, that seemed to automatically have a negative impact on women. So what I'm very, very interested in is how institutions shapes subjectivity. So I'm going to talk about that some more. So just to give you an example, one of the things that we routinely did, and you will have some understanding of these things with your background and reproductive health, was when women had a baby, we'd sort of go around and we'd say, here's an ice pack. That was a block of ice, rectum cloth, and we place a woman pop this on your journey and do Does anyone know what appearance? Yeah, no. Yeah. [00:03:13] So that's, that's the area between your closures and your [00:03:21] Yeah, further round. [00:03:29] And so lots and [00:03:30] lots of, you know, female buddies, it was kind of, well, we stay warm when we've had a baby. We don't want anything cold near [00:03:37] us. Yeah. [00:03:38] So that's the traditional in many parts of the world. The other big thing was, in many of our cultures, when you have a baby or someone who's really special, you've been through heaps, and even a solicitous love you on a you and pimp you, right. And the New Zealand, that's kind of like you've had your baby, get on with it, feed your baby, change your baby, we want you to become as independent as soon as possible. So, you know, I'll sing all the ways in which there are these cultural clashes. And these culture clashes were frustrating for my colleagues and the incredibly frustrating for women, you know, and every woman of color that I passed by would look at me beseechingly, you know, so. So it's kind of like saved me, you know that this place is not treating me well. So this fantasy I had of maternity, as this place where we could really honor women [00:04:28] became completely trashed. [00:04:29] So what I decided to do was talk to women about their experiences. And I decided to talk to health professionals about their experiences about having a baby looking after women. [00:04:43] And so what I did was, I've been teaching Plunkett nurses who are child health nurses, about postnatal depression for about 18 years, that's my field, specifically, and I arranged focus groups with health professionals and I had focus groups with women from Iraq, Palestine, China, Korea, India, the UK, the US and South Africa. So you know, quite a range of women. And a lot of women also fundraise for this project. So it was a real labor of love, you know, lots of voluntary time. So these are the kinds of questions that I wanted to ask in my research. And because, you know, what reproduction means is not just this individual moment, it's about what kind of society are you recreating? Yeah, [00:05:29] what kind of huge amount of values and beliefs that we replicating? And and if your subjectivity, your personhood has been formed in a different context? What does it mean to be inserted into the machinery? Sorry? What, what does it mean, to be inserted [00:05:54] into the machinery [00:05:57] of the system that fixes what I live was refectory like, so we're trying to produce a particular type of person, you know, and I see this in terms of my own nursing education. So I did my I started my nursing education in 1984. hc, I've given away my age. And and, you know, one of the things that my PhD supervisor, he's in Seattle, you know, he's, he's written about this, he said, it doesn't matter what the raw materials are, they forced into this curriculum machine, which is shaped by whiteness and colonization, that produces a universal Miss. So if you think about our academic organizations, we talked about the critique and conscience of Saudi, but the converting beers for materials into some kind of standardized person? Yeah. Oh, stupid. [00:06:51] Questions, like we talked about by cultural ism. We talked about titling it. So but what does it mean, when we, you know, nurses were the ones that said, cultural safety, that's when the in use of the services service, the five that was service has been appropriated to meet the needs. What does it mean, in a New Zealand context? Really, with people of color women of color, who who aren't model? So thanks for the kinds of things that I was interested in. And this liberal feminist idea of birth is transformational for women, and doesn't actually get minimized for women of color. So I was really interested in those kinds of questions. Is anyone still with me? Okay, um, anytime I get boring, just do this. Yeah. [00:07:45] Okay, so So I told you, I did these focus groups and our starting point. But what I started becoming interested in is we do these ideas come from So Michelle, for co the French theorists, talks about the history of the present, how do we come to have the final ideas, because they're not new, they've all come from somewhere. And he talks about a genius illogical method to look at how things come into being. So I just wanted to look at that about what to see. And I'm also interested in the idea of discourse, which I'm going to tell you about, which is that actually, we don't have any individual ideas. Okay. So I'm just thinking of those of you that appearance, I'm not a [00:08:25] parent. [00:08:26] But I have lots of little people in my life. And they just repeat everything that's in the environment, but they would you agree with you guys. [00:08:34] So I reckon, even as adults, we do the same thing. We, you know, when we find something where we produce things, something that we've caught an eye on TNA that we've heard around us, and we repeat it, and we don't always critique it becomes taken for granted. But there are a whole lot of ideas and concepts that are mobilized, you know, and Belinda, you talked about stereotypes yesterday, you know, there's things that we might not even be conscious of, but we draw them down and they become part of us. Yeah. And they live in our bodies. So I was interested in what kind of discourses are mobilized, hey, and if anyone wants any of these notes, I'm really happy to email them to you or anything like that. And what kind of discourses are mobilized. And so I want to take you through the idea of discourses and discourse analysis, because that's something I've become really interested in as, without textual frames. So you know, you'll, you'll find this interesting, you know, that the idea of text, and I'm going to give you some tips, because I thought of you last night and tips. So it's kind of about can we deconstruct the relationships, conditions that meeting with power, and identify how they manage? So discourses make available particular ways of seeing the world particular stories about things? And I'm going to give you an example minutes, don't get worried about that definition. So what I wanted to do was to say, Okay, what are the kinds of discourses about migrant? Marcus? Yeah. Where did those ideas come from? And what are the impacts of those ways of thinking? And are there some other ways of thinking about them? Does that make sense? Yeah, maybe. Okay. So what I want to do is, I want to show you some examples of discourse and take some pictures. Now, these pictures of a very future sexual generally, events that's coming up next week, Valentine's Day [00:10:29] behind. [00:10:30] And what I realized is that they might also trigger people. So I just want to apologize about that. Because when they do have a particular version of love or relationship that might be upsetting. So please [00:10:43] look after yourself. If [00:10:44] if something does come up, okay. So when you look at this, [00:10:48] what does this say to you about a relationship between [00:10:50] a man and a woman? And Valentine's? [00:10:55] psycho? [00:10:59] Sorry, ownership. Absolutely. Okay. So I want you to just throw out your ideas, but, but these [00:11:05] are sort of, you know, [00:11:06] these are real cats. From the 50s. Okay. [00:11:14] Exactly. [00:11:17] Exactly. Yeah. No, configs See, what about this one? [00:11:22] This is [00:11:27] to please [00:11:27] you, My Valentine. [00:11:45] baby's first [00:11:46] place first. [00:11:48] Place first. [00:11:52] is a painted on? Yeah, yeah. [00:11:59] First, yeah. [00:12:10] Okay, I'll read this one for you. [00:12:12] In case you can't see it. You built a wall so fast and strong. But with my magic, right, it won't last long. [00:12:24] Are you starting? Yeah, yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. [00:12:38] Exactly. Okay. I'm out hunting for Valentine [00:12:47] to be hunted by me. Yeah. [00:12:54] Animals. You're cute. [00:13:00] This [00:13:04] is gay patch. Boo. Yep. [00:13:09] Yep. [00:13:10] Yep. So So what you're starting to talk about are the kind of discourses? Yeah, so I'm just trying to give you a sense of what covered in the kinds of ways we frame relationships and heterosexual relationships and Valentine's cards, say in the 50s. But you know, these would have been sorry. Yeah. But you know, I'm just, you know, this is kind of a little bit extreme, but it's to try and get you thinking about the idea of discourse as sort of a way of thinking that circulating and that socially constructed. Is that kind of coming through. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. [00:13:56] about this. [00:14:00] Satisfied on [00:14:03] the basis of room and occasional [00:14:07] coaching in the room, same [00:14:09] as the main campus, the woman in the room tonight, or you want me in the environment. And that's been a major issue. The first Facebook handle that challenge children's it. loans. Yes, yes. [00:14:29] Yes, yeah. Yeah. So So there's all these ways of thinking that, you know, [00:14:37] you can deconstruct and start thinking about what was the dominant ideas of the time about how relationships work. So that's kind of the point I'm, I'm trying to make here. This one. I'm bound to be yours if you'll be mine. Yeah. [00:15:09] Okay. [00:15:11] Yesterday, you saw that one about the yellow hero. Here's another one. So what do you see when you see this? I'll just read it in case you can't see. At the bottom it says the Hindu spelled h i n. d. o Piro, small politicians. Open the door, and the sky is the Imperial politician. Why do you do policy? How does the alpha who's Indian in this case or South Asian? how their friends picture? [00:15:40] Their monster? The much bigger rattling [00:15:45] in the door? Yeah. [00:15:50] Sorry. Yeah, [00:15:56] that's a scary, scary, scary. [00:16:03] A small, sort of implying that it takes someone [00:16:09] famous to be a racist. Yeah. And they're not willing to be so they're kind of small. Yeah. Yeah, [00:16:14] that's true. Seems to [00:16:18] be the true that the movie and an opportunity came to my small need [00:16:29] a small number. [00:16:37] That community came a [00:16:41] lot. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. [00:16:51] And the other thing that I find really interesting, you know, and the New Zealand politician who I challenge the morning was not very impressed with me at all. But But the other thing that I find interesting is the way in which those kind of metaphors that evoked you know, the yellow para, dangerous, infectious, contaminating, untreatable, you know, continuous, exactly, all of those things. Now, I just want to sort of shift that idea of discourses, I'm just trying to take you a bit on a journey, right. And so think about alcohol and drug use, you know, one of one of my, my first job was working in a methadone clinic, you know, and I'm very interested in the kinds of different discourses around drugs and addiction. And so I'm trying to just sort of give you a bit of a sense of what I'm talking about when I talk about discourse before we move into my material. Okay. Is this helpful? Yeah. So one of our moral discourse about drug use is that, you know, you use drugs, you're bad, you're evil. You know, it's a moral weakness using drugs. And the kind of treatment or the, the the mechanism to correct it is to persuade the drug user that that's a bad thing to [00:18:07] do. Yeah. [00:18:08] And the PEC stigmatization person sort of considered releases citizen, and punished, you know, so that's criminal, right? [00:18:18] diseases course, well, the drugs are okay. But some people can't cope with the drug. So, [00:18:24] the [00:18:26] person has a predisposition, so we should protect them from the drag, hence the abstinence model here [00:18:31] the a in a model, [00:18:34] and then if people abstain, then they'll be fine. You know, and some people the drugs, okay. [00:18:41] And then pharmacological, discourses, drugs, the dangerous and overpowering, you know, we need to protect people from them. We have legislation, and people are victims who might use the drug here. So you have legislation? Again, some of the a, in a discourses, you know, the powers of our drug use, [00:19:00] insecure. Yeah. [00:19:00] And in fact, it's much more complicated. It's more of a triangle, but no one calls to fame. Yeah. And there's a relationship of factors. So I'm just trying to give you a sense of the [00:19:14] the different ways in which you know, discourses work in different areas. So what I want to do now if I can, as I right, if I divide you into groups and give me some something to do, yes. [00:19:28] And what I'd like to do is [00:19:35] first of all, give you [00:19:38] some quotes, from blanket gnosis and I'd like you to kind of just have a think about [00:19:47] wondering

This page features computer generated text of the source audio. It is not a transcript, it has not been checked by humans and will contain many errors. However it is useful for searching on keywords and themes.