Charles Mackay

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[00:00:00] Kyoto Tata. So this is a bit of an update on some research that began in 2004. And it's still going and it was in connection with her radio program with Radio New Zealand. So I want to acknowledge I'm free landline, who was an original collaborator on their research and also acknowledge the support from the Ministry and the stout Research Center at Victoria University, where I've been based on for a bit of the time this year in June 1914, has Majesty's theatre and finally hosted a fundraising show for the Technical College builders grant, polite voidable and hypnotic entertainment. The evening kicked off with the Justice content, and the comedian Mr. Fred Groombridge singing his screamingly funny comic songs. [00:00:42] Then Professor Mackey, the hypnotist, mental telepathy system [00:00:45] ventriloquist presented the big hypnotic show. First up, Professor Nikki and his pal bill perform their big ventricle tune. Then the professor gave a demonstration of the fun making possibilities of hypnotism supplemented by an interesting exposition of music telepathy. newspaper reports tell us that the professor's subjects were as clay and the hands of a potter and the comical antics while under the influence, keep the audience and continuous laughter Professor Mkhize real name was Albert Godfrey. I'm not sure if he was macchio MCI, and while he used hypnosis to entertain on the stage, his day job involved using it to treat functional and nervous disorders from his Danville home. Several months after the concert one of those seeking treatment was Professor Mick Mackey's namesake, Charles Mackey, the mayor of organoid. The mayor had been referred by his GP and sought help for homosexual tendencies and began Of course of treatment. Presumably This was private to the two men and very few if any others, but it became more widely known Six years later following a sensational shooting on a Saturday afternoon and may 1920. The first reference in the newspapers was the following Monday and a story with a curious headline Painful sensation. Young men seriously wounded Mr. C Mackey under arrest. The young man was Walter Darcy crispo, a 24 year old returned soldier and writer from Canterbury visiting his family as well as being one who is then longest serving me. Charles Mackey was a 44 year old lawyer and father of three daughters making shot crystal while the two men were arguing and Becky's office on the right hand side up at the level of this photo, and crystal was taken to hospital and that's about all people knew for several weeks while they waited to see if crystal would recover. Very little was reported in the newspapers after Nikki's lawyer requested the papers not published statements of the affair obtained from outside individuals. Papers beyond one the know he went so circumspect. The poverty by hero described the shooting as the greatest and most painful sensation momentary has experienced for some considerable time. But to this day, it's unclear exactly What did happen and Becky's office. Once crystals condition improved, Nikki's attempted murder charge was confirmed and a trial date was set. At the trial crystals version of the events leading up to the shooting emerged and the form of a bid side statement. Unusually, this wasn't signed by Chris well, but it was signed by Mackey. And that endorsement at the bottom from Mackey rates. I have read the above statement and as far as it relates to my own x and deeds, I admit the statement to be substantially true. [00:03:30] That is three page [00:03:31] statement describes how Chris will arrived in town on the Monday before the shooting. That day he had dinner with his cousin and Mackey at a local hotel. The three men died again three days later, and they invited Chris while to finish visit the sergeant gallery the next afternoon. So here's the sergeant gallery of Queens Park, built with a request from Henry Sergeant a local farmer the sergeant gallery opened in September 1919. Inside the construction of such a Grand Gallery, in a preventional center During the Great War was a sign of organized prosperity and status is the fifth largest town in New Zealand. neck. It was a driving force behind the construction of the gallery which probably explains why he had a key when he visited with Chris will. No doubt the two minute mile the copy of the wristlets described by one guy right here is one of New Zealand's top 300 erotic sculptures. Here it is being exalted by by the playwright Ronald Tripura Nelson. Crystal statement explains what happened next, revealing his role as agent provocateur, and blackmailer, so crystal said in his statement when we lift the art gallery we went to Mr. Mackey's office in retro Street and while there, I discovered a certain disgusting feature Mr. Nicky's character. I purposely encouraged him to display his qualities in his nature, which I expected. He also showed me several photographs of nude women are making that discovery. I told him that I had laid him on on purpose to make sure of his duty intentions. And I told him also amongst a lot of other candid things that he must resign. The military at once even pleaded for Lucien asked me to think over it for the night and come and see him next morning and let them know my decision. Now it's unclear exactly what Chris will did to lead Mackie on what the Susan disgusting feature Mr. Mackey's character was and how this was revealed. But the photos of naked women became clear when I visited Berlin in 2007 and MIT Carl hunch stylet in the right, and this photo is a curator with the schuler's Museum, the only museum dedicated to the research and publication of homosexual life. style I had seen similar references as a typical way of finding out if someone is gay. The photos could also be used to arouse the other men, which makes sense if he's having for example six for money, like male prostitutes who may not have identified as homosexual. The Crystal statement brings us to the big mystery hanging over the whole story. How did someone who wasn't even from Mongolia come to be blackmailing the media? As I'll explain my research has shed some light on this, but to continue crystals account of what happened in Mackey's office. As a Making Chris will meet again the next day at Becky's office maketo crystal that he was suffering from a complaint which made it impossible to confer him to control his patients and said that his doctor could satisfy Chris well in that respect. He rang his doctor but every time he on two or three occasions, but each time the doctor was out, the peer continue to argue before make he agreed to write a letter resigning as mayor in a month. According to Chris Well, he was following Mackey through the door into an adjoining office so we're there with it wall would have been just round about where I'm standing there. When Nikki turned around and shot Chris wall before placing the gun and the young man's hand to Nike surprised crystal got up and pointed the gun at him. So we're looking the other way. Now in that in that office, Nike then ran out of the office and Chris will find that he couldn't open the door, threw a chair out of the window, and then yelled at the people on the street below. Maybe then reappeared asked Chris will to shoot him, but Chris will fire off the remaining bullets in the gun. And then Chris will then ran out of the office onto that landing there. Ended up on the stairs towards the street as people from outside were coming up about where I am in that photo. Like he gave himself up and was held in custody until the trial which was 12 days later. And then the magistrates court lucky gave no evidence beyond pleading guilty. The court heard statements from crystal and the eyewitnesses who saw the shooting from the street. The next day was a sentencing hearing and the Supreme Court before the Chief Justice Roberts stout. And this trial we do hear from their kivar has lawyers submissions to reduce the sentence. And these are the submissions that underlie my argument for describing Mackey's this country's first homosexual marriage lawyer told the court that his client had been suffering for a number of years from homosexual monomania and that he'd made efforts to cure himself by consulting doctors and physicians. statements from these experts were produced for the chief justice but not made public at the time. One statement from a GP explained that Nike came to him six years earlier, with reference to homosexual monomania and he advised him to obtain surgery treatment and believed he acted on that advice. The second statement is from AIG and MCI. The professor I mentioned earlier now calling himself a major [00:08:11] physician. [00:08:13] This statement tells us more about what the suggested treatment involved. This is to signify that Mr. C Mackey in August 1914, acting on the advice of his medical advisor came to see me about treating him for obsessions of homosexual nature. He was in a very worried and depressed frame of mind and said if I could not help him, life would be impossible. He had treatment intermittently until the end of November 1914. He didn't stop the treatments because he said the homosexual ideas were gone and he felt quite all right again. And my opinion intimate and treatments should have been kept up for 12 to 18 months then the cure would have been permanent. I've treated other cat cases of homosexual desire with success, the two chief causes of relapse, alcoholism and neurasthenia. For the last two months we know Mr. C Mackey has been had great mental strain and worry and I'm sure if this isn't So this trouble would never have come to pass. So there's three words in these statements that help us decode them. monomania, metaphysician and nearest fania. So today, monomania is a general term for just an obsession. in psychiatry it used to mean describe a form of insanity or mental illness featuring a single pattern of repetitive and intrusive thoughts or actions. So homosexual monomania would have been I think, seen as a disorder where a person's he has a disability a person has a tendency towards homosexuality, or more specifically, what was being called the crime against nature, sodomy or beggary [00:09:37] amazing physician [00:09:38] these days is still regarded as an expert in metaphysics, the branch of philosophy dealing with the first principles of things. Here, I think we're dealing with a different now obsolete definition for a person who practices metaphysical healing. Less can refer to a Christian Science term for the use of non physical means to cure physical illness. But at the same time, it's important to remember that when macky sought his treatment, mental disease was seen as having a symmetric basis being very based in your body rather than Freudian ideas and things that came later. So what sort of treatments could have been offered by metaphysicians? [00:10:10] Thanks to papers past the national Iris website, we can get an idea from looking at the advertisements placed by metaphysicians, which appear from the late 1890s through to the 1930s. Among the therapies offered by metaphysicians, a spiritualism, magnetic suggestion, medical clairvoyance, hypnotic therapeutics and psychometry. So if we look a bit more closely at Albert, Mackey's advertisements among annoyed and September 1914, around the time Mackey sought his treatment, we know that Albert Mecca used suggestive therapeutics to treat all functional and nervous disorders. Now homosexuality isn't among the cases listed, but it may have been covered by bad habits of all kinds. And by the following year 1915, hit edit an email and SMS the list. But just as hypnosis is still used, for example, to help people Stop smoking. I suspect that in 1914 it was used perhaps with autosuggestion techniques to help or to attempt to cure homosexuality. 1916 Albert Mackie starts calling himself a metaphysician and relocates to what State Street which if you're from familiar with voluntary it's the Harley Street along knowing his granddaughter remembers him wanting to be a doctor but not being able to afford the training because he had a large number of children. Despite this, there is evidence he was taken seriously as a health expert. We need to look a bit more closely at the conditions listed by Albert Nikki and his advertising in the court statement as a cause of homosexual relapse is this word neurasthenia. This is another obsolete term referring to a bewildering a broad array of physical and mental symptoms attributed to nervous exhaustion. Bearing in mind, it's significant that Mackey's lawyer told the court it was a matter of common knowledge that the accused have been suffering considerable mental strain over the last three or five months and that to a considerable extent had unhinged his mind. So the argument is reminiscent of the, the temporary insanity and provocation defenses and a murder trial that we're more familiar with today. The provocation defense has been controversially deployed in cases where a homosexual man has been murdered. And the defendant through his lawyer argues that he was provoked by the victim sexual advances and that this justifies a manslaughter sentence or an acquittal. And Mackey's case is a curious twist. Hey, you've got the man who inflicted the violence, arguing that his own homosexuality made him temporarily insane, leading him to attempt to murder the other men. But in 1920, the defense didn't impress the chief justice, who said the attempt on crystals life was not an impulsive act as the placing of the revolver and the young man's hand showed, while accepting the fact of Nikki said affliction. stout said he would have to impose a heavy sentence with the hope that maybe he would try to redeem himself and in the years to come, be found clothed in his right mind. Even sentence married 15 years of labor. And so Makey began a remarkable turn. North Island prisons. But before we look at their let's just look a bit more closely at the events leading up to the shooting and why Nikki was under such [00:13:07] pressure. [00:13:09] Here he is on the top right hand side of this photo. It cooks gardens, reading the address of Welcome to the Prince of Wales. So that's it with the I, the one who abdicated he visited one no he just before the shooting was still in New Zealand when it happened. Like he was at the center of numerous Rouse trigger, triggered by arrangements for the visit. These arguments lead to death threats against Makey and he was apparently carrying a gun at the time of the penalties was it so how did Nikki's on popularity among connect with Darcy crystal? Well, we know that more about this because of Chris will subsequent career as a well known if ambiguous figure in New Zealand literature. The year after the shooting, he returned to England where he'd been studying architecture before the Great War. Now he wanted to write and had a remarkably resilient belief in his ability as a poet. [00:13:58] Then as now the critics disagreed. [00:14:02] Rising in 2008 john Newton argue that crystals efforts can fairly be described as doggerel. Crystal was diluted in his self belief as a part and nothing that he wrote subsequently would offer this impression of his first. crystals. prose writing was more highly regarded, but none of his works are in print and his writing hasn't appeared in anthology since the 1960s. After he was shot by making Christmas one praise as a wholesome minded young man, but his efforts to unmask Mickey's pursuit of what truth called perverted and putrid pleasures. When it became known that Chris will was like macky homosexual, the story took a different tune, and addition to the still unexplained circumstances of how and why crystal was unlisted to blackmail murky. There's also the question posed by the writer Peter wells. Why would 100 sexual men blackmail another? crystals relationship with Frank Sanderson another homosexual writer gives us a better idea and the 1930s Chris will lived in Auckland and interesting about the shooting star Justin had been involved in another blackmail court case and also hidden his homosexuality. He told bill Metro It was a retired school principal about the ordinary shooting natural who was from long ago he started researching the story and continued after Sam Jackson's death in 1982. Metro right up is research and this is an unpublished manuscript deposited with yorkton University and timbal libraries. As part of his research material wrote to help ensure the writer part and editor, whose collection of crystals letters was published in 1971. Helen Shaw has also been recently researching the one and only shooting and found crystals own admittedly second hand explanation for why he blackbelt macky. Now among the many correspondents that Helen shore contacted was crystals, Christ college classmate, Charles Carrington, who wrote to shore in about a 1965 apparently crystal called the one and only adventure and this is what he wrote. All I recall of the motive is that Darcy had a young friend And he's gotten brackets and quotes Ronnie question might have been fallen into the clutches of the mayor who quote had a bad influence on him. Does he threaten the mayor if he would not break his association with this Ronnie Darcy would expose him. The mayor of the Stasi to his private office for discussion, shot him with a revolver and tried to frame it as a suicide. Now, this is Bill Metro with Phoebe maikel and Frank Samson's house actually, so let's build you know, I the shore normal, apparently made any progress and finding out more about Crystal's friend who may have been called Ronnie. Similarly, the identity of the cousin who had dinner with crystal in the mirror and possibly introduced the two men has remained hidden. What's now apparent is that the cousin and the person that Chris Carrington mentioned could be the same person. Not knowing about this possibility explains why both Mitchell ensure drew a blank when they were trying to explain Crystal's motive for blackmailing Mackey. I also drew a blank when I tried to identify crystals was going to be relations who no longer love and wanna know. The breakthrough came when a researcher Loneliness scrapbook belonging to crystals and Elena Mary crystal published in 1994 by one of the grandsons. Together with copies of handwritten notes, photos and ephemera from the scrapbook. This included family background information, providing the missing link to the one and only crystals and opening up a new perspective on the 1920s shooting. So this book with its crude photocopied grandma's scrapbook label suggests hunt and Deering Miss Eleni of cozy homespun reminiscences. Instead, it's a haunting portrait of a woman's profound and rural grief of the loss of his son jack and the Great War. It also recounts a better internet sign route with one daughter, it was called nella, disliked by her mother as much as another son, it was called William free, was loved and admired. There's a later in the script book in 1944, which was two years before Eleanor died and a decade after the death of her husband, and she evokes the names the name of her in laws to convey her vision to her daughter, nella nella is her father's daughter crystal free as my love son jack was my love boy to very much like free, true kind, gentle as sympathy and understanding. Not so much for the pounds shillings and pence is the crystals which was first within the very name I dislike how I have been heard by more than one crystal. So who were these crystals so much for the pound shillings and pence despised by Eleanor. They came to New Zealand from England on the fine first four ships brought by the Canterbury association to found Christchurch Darcy's great grandparents arrived on the George Seymour together with their four children. their eldest son married and had 14 children, and the two oldest were Darcy's one going to be uncle Charles Marshall crystal and Darcy's father, Walter Joseph crystal, Charles crystal married Eleanor Mary slight pick up the scrapbook. So the crystal family linked with one we know it begins in 1891. And crystals grandfather became manager of the newly established winery, freezing works and Castle Cliff [00:19:00] Three years later, his son Charles Criswell, started at the works and became secretary and later manager staying with the company until it closed over 30 years later. Charles Crystal's involvement with one and a public life would have brought him into contact with Mackey who was also the family lawyer. Now it might have been Charles Chris will have introduce Darcy Crystal tenakee in 1920. But I think it was more likely to have been one of his five children. Presumably one of these is the cousin referred to as the crystal statement. So assuming it wasn't either of the daughters, it could have been one of the surviving sons, Roland Marshall and William Frey, who were around 29 and 21, respectively 1920. And this was the third son, jack Tennyson crystal who died in the Battle of Passchendaele on the 12th of October 1917. Now, like so many of those who died in a futile attempt to take the Bellevue spirit, his body was never found. Another crystal cousin Gordon, Helen died in the same battle and Roland like his cousin Darcy had served overseas and both were wounded. Now Roland was known as Roland by his family and his army far as under that name. What if Roland slash Ron and Chris will was the running mentioned and Carrington Slater having lost one son and the Great War, maybe the one and only Chris was feared losing another, or were they resentful of Nikki as an able bodied man who enlisted but avoided military service and not lost any children to the war. Until more information emerges, there can only be speculation, but Eleanor crystal scrapbook cancer the family traumatized by the Great War from 1918 through to just days before her death in 1946. Eleanor wrote to his son Jake on the anniversary of his death and his birthday, pasting the notes in the scrapbook. Whether or not the crystal family had a motive Darcy Chris was attempt to blackmail Mackey aligned with anger and Mangano he directed at the mayor. So, here he is. This isn't long, actually before the shooting. This is the trotting club and he was the president and this is him here in the center of that photo. So 1920 Nikki was still recovering from an accident the previous year when he was run over by a note card. When he successfully sued the cab driver who was a lot poorer than he was. Now he was criticized by the ordinary Chronicle. The criticism intensified from February 1920, when long ago he was confirmed as being part of the itinerary for the visit of the Prince of Wales. Now, securing the only concert in New Zealand for the prince should have been a coup for Mickey, but quickly things unraveled. After he engaged out of town musical soloists. There was a storm of angry letters to the papers asking why wineries and performance weren't good enough for the road for royalty. Then there was another rare when temperance groups objected to the cleric cup to be served at the supper for young people at the sergeant gallery after the Civic concert, but these rails powered alongside the argument between men and the woman or a branch of the returned soldiers Association. unhappy with its role and planning the visit the RSA asked to be able to mount its own concert and the Opera House. This was a great two but the coral flood at the game because of a rally between Mickey and the president of the RSA Nelson golden words which is the strip here. We make you refuse to apologize towards for comments made at a council meeting held in committee, the RSA band and from its concert. Nikki then withdrew permission for the RSI to use the Opera House, prompting the RSI to make the government ministers organizing the world visit. When Mackey wrote to the paper defending his actions, the iris a reply in return contained to threats. We had hoped that it would not be necessary to refer to this and we do not wish to publicly discuss this question aspect of the question before the prince comes to voluntary while he is in New Zealand. We called him as the representative of the king for whom so many of our members afforded an honor to have suffered and bled and to great veneration to say or do anything which would cause trouble while he was with us. Mr. Mackey knows very well what we refer to and if we have made publicly explain further at this juncture on his head will be it. We are quite prepared to make an F make an affidavit regarding certain methods which are in our opinion unperson for attending. Entertainment, and we will have to placing it before the proper quarter deposit that affidavit with the court and hand copies to the local papers to be published after the princess departure from New Zealand and order that the people of the town may judge whether or not we acted with to cause I wonder what their affidavit said. The affidavit has never come to light but apparently contained the faithful record of a miracle afferents made in our presence in hearing concerning the prince and a motor car, supplemented by an extract from the local priests reporting a somewhat similar reference concerning His Majesty the King. Now, that may be true, but I think it really reads like a veiled threat to me and I can't help but wonder if they were pets talking in code about what they knew about Nikki. When this appeared in the papers, Mickey was an Auckland for the prince's arrival. After his return. arroway strike was called and the whole visit was put on hold and the visit was cancelled, [00:23:52] then it was on again, [00:23:54] but three days later than initially scheduled. But tragically, the visit was a disaster and expose 102 International ridicule. One account published in papers in Perth, Tasmania and Melbourne had the headline blunder of Patty jealousy. And here's just a little excerpt about one of the concepts, the concept of it by the return soldiers at the Opera House to a Crowded House but was not an artistic success. Same was set resembling an oasis in the desert. Several performers dressed as Arab sang old ballads, such as the Bedouin love song, introduce personalities and make jokes about beer. There was also some poor dancing. The concept was not an ISIS that resembled rather than visit itself. [00:24:38] Like I wish there was there was a power cut during the Civic concert, and the print speak barely any time at the supper after which the crowd stole the food and looted the silverware belonging to the mirror. And the prince whose benefit this was all for wasn't impressed. Now it's given Maclean's history of the governance General has noted. The prince thought long ago His Imperial hotel was a miserable little hole. And he lived the two ghastly concerts in a civic supper party in America with more than 3000 people, as well as no electric light the hotel boilers boost before dinner. So nobody and a very nasty dinner he wrote in later, but we're still for Mickey the route with the soldiers intensified after the princess visit, and the RSA allegations of Mickey's disloyal utterances and contemptible conduct were published. [00:25:22] And he was also under fire from requesting invitations to events welcoming the prince into needed in Christchurch. And during the streeting trial, Mackey's lawyer mentioned that the mayor had arrived in his office in a distressed state after reading something in the paper, apparently related to these rounds. Now, there aren't many leaders and supportive me over the period leading up to the shooting, but there was one that suggested that there might be more than you think, to the soldiers complaints. This little writer right when the whole business is analyzed. There's very little on it. But I guess the return soldiers association is being used as a tool to assist in the learning of Mr. Neck in the eyes of the right players. for political purposes. There are certain people in this town who have a personal grudge against Mr. Mackey, and never fail to ventilate some imaginary grievance in order to show him up. Now, Nikki was also criticized for failing serving the Great War. Though he didn't list he didn't serve or train arguing that he was unable to get someone to take over his business. And here he is with the counselors that he was with in 1919. So this is the group that were counts. This is the council at the time the shooting. There was also more general criticism of Nikki's performances mere later writers argued that loans rates increases and neglect of town amenities were evidence that he was being mismanaged. These anonymous correspondence code for a change and viral management maintaining a sound business Brian's a wanted by the man sitting in the middle chair. So I think it's interesting that the man chosen to replace Mackey as mayor was a businessman, Thomas possible Williams, who was also one of Nikki's very vocal opponents. Williams was also MBA from 1913 to 1915, following Nikki's resignation after around with the Barrett engineer, which was to do with the power supply. So related to this, there's another explanation to do with one enormous power supply. Now as I've mentioned during the Civic concert for the prince, His Majesty's theatre was plunged into darkness when the electric lights failed. And what had happened was that the power plant which was originally built to supply electricity for the trends couldn't cope with the initial demand over time that added on businesses and things and other users as well as the trends. When the plant failed again later in 19 2100, was without power and electric trends for three months. There, Nike was advocating hydro power from late 1919. He'd been pushing for an engineering investigation of the guy who rather as a source of electricity, but there were strong advocates for other solutions. After the 1920s shooting Mackey's Fonda who river proposal was quietly shelved, and then stayed an alternative to hydro. A new power station opened in 1924. Even if the hour the how to resolve the power supply crisis doesn't explain why Mickey was black belt. It does point to one reason why it would have suited some people for him to be out of the picture. As Metro shore and others were forced to conclude, the circumstances surrounding Chris was blackmail of Nikki will remain obscure, rather than one explanation. Perhaps it was like a perfect storm a convergence of elements of the various models. But after the trial, a veil of silence descended overwhelmingly with just a few brief newspaper references to the shooting. In July 1920, an article in The New Zealand times and another papers reported that Chris will had recovered and was about to leave why knowing the article said that additional information was secured by Chris will consequent on his discoveries in connection with the first case. And I know information under this detail has been published. It is understood that certain people are shaking the dust of ordinary off their feet. That's a reference from Matthew chapter 10 verse 14, and whosoever shall not receive you know, hear your words, when you depart out of their house or city shake off the dust of your [00:28:53] feet. [00:28:54] This refers to people living in disgust at heathen practices. So it's interesting to note the next verse which Many people in 1920 would have known. Verily I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah and the Day of Judgment than for that city. Now, I haven't been able to find out much more about this, but it ties in with some persistent references in the oral history record that others besides Mr. Mackey, were involved in the same immoral practices. If this is the case, it could be an additional motivation for the silence among entering after the trial. But more than this, the people in the town took different steps to eliminate Mackey's name from the record. So, as part of the anti German feeling following the Great War, German names were changed around New Zealand. And among the way in 1920, the Bard Council decided to rename crowl Road and cynjohn cell and so that became Oakland Avenue. And at the same meeting, the council has decided to rename macky Street and momentary East after the Governor General Lord jellico. So [00:29:49] it's Yeah, [00:29:51] it was Maquis street there and became jellico. So this is the way the homestead belonging to his in laws and all these names are associated with the family. The Duncans and the foundation stone for the sergeant gallery was also targeted. This is the dedication of the stone by the Governor General. And there's Mackey sitting to the right of the mural chair here and the Governor General and this is the stone. There were two stones unveiled that day. This one and this one. This is the one that was targeted by the town. Here's what it looks like now that it looks like the name is not there. It actually is. It's just the pants disappeared. So at some stage, I don't know when it happened, but Nikki's name and title was sanded off the marble, but the name was restored in 1985 years. I'll explain later, Isabelle Mackey, filed for divorce initially on the grounds of sodomy and adultery. The sodomy ground was withdrawn and the divorce was confirmed by the Chief Justice Roberts staff in September 1920. Now as about Mickey changed her name and also the name of the three daughters so they all became known as Duncan's met his in laws were a distinguished one going to a European settler family in this Titus was effector I think in the towns reaction following the shooting. I spoke to a retired newspaper editor who said to me that when he arrived and we're going to be in 1968 The first thing he could remember being told was, whatever you do don't tangle with the families of the turkey hunt or the Duncans. Any story involving these families would need to be approved by the board of the newspaper. And let's in 1968, and 1965, Helen shore wrote to the council asking for information about the shooting, the town clerk's reply in the Bertha's suggestion, as the incident was not a very savory one in the history of the city and also as members of the family of the late Mr. macchia still residing among annoying, I would suggest that you either tone down the major in your writings or let the incident altogether. After the shooting, Mackey declared himself bankrupt and was struck off as a lawyer writing from prison and 19 December 1920. He summed up his own position. As to myself I should tell you that since I last wrote, I've been divorced my bankrupt and struck off the roles so that I will leave jail without a penny, a family or a profession. is a bit hard but it can't be held. Of course I should leave New Zealand as soon as I get out and try my luck elsewhere. Now we know quite a bit about Nikki's time in prison because his father survived. It's better at stake testimony to the Mackie seven transfers to five of the 10 presence he could have been in at that time. So here's where he went from Monterrey. He went to Mount Hayden back to Illinois for a few weeks to wind up his business, then back to mountain for two weeks for two years. He was then transferred to Wikipedia reformatory for nearly a year and a half, then spent a year in New Plymouth prison before being transferred to how to present by like total for about 10 months. He then returned to Manhattan for 11 months before he left for London fire Australia. Now there's a wealth of detail in the prison file, including 19 liters from macky, censored but retained in the file. And he's give a fascinating, quite unique insight into prison life through the eyes of a well educated men. [00:32:57] Now fortunately for [00:32:58] him, the prison system and the 20s was in a very liberal phase under the direction of a man called Charles Matthews, who believe that men are punished by being sent to prison. They're not punished while in prison. And that opportunity should be made available for rehabilitation. So Mackey was quick to take advantage of this. And so we find them learning Esperanto, the universal language and within a short space of time he's taking the class. He was sending French translations to the consulate in Auckland, and he had permission to receive the Times of London with the writing and the court stories cut out. Looking at the present file, it's very clear that many members of Becky's family stood by him visiting writing and advocating on his behalf. So it's not too surprising that his older sister was involved in his early release from President August 1926. The probation license is missing from the fall, but the release was apparently conditional on nakki leaving the country the very same day as he got out of meditating, accompanied by a sister who agreed to sit him up in a new career in London. They released was apparently secret as it didn't appear in the media for a month but when it did, it was on the front Truth, which was outraged that the whole matter seems to have been closely hushed up. Now, the early release of two other prisoners around the same time was also controversial and there was extensive coverage of all three cases and truth and other papers, all alleging that the prisoners had had some sort of preferential treatment. The outrage leads the Justice Minister to order the President's board, which was the forerunner of the parole board to write a report into the release of the three prisoners. Now, Mackey's released coincided with a period of tension between the board and the President's department staff. And I wonder if the release of making the other two prisoners was leaked to the media by police or prison staff to get back at the board. The boards report was released a few days before Christmas in 1926. And it outlined the effects of Becky's case and the reasons for the Board's decision. The board also referred to a return statement made by Chris for two years after he was wounded, so that would have been a 1922. Now, I haven't been able to find any more information about this. I don't know if it relates to that additional information that New Zealand time Story mentioned. And so Mickey story moves to London has new career, new business, which was apparently an advertising agency failed and he lost his money. Now there's very little information about what he was doing in London. But there are some tantalizing glimpses. an enthusiastic follower of the Russian bellows 1928 season macky drafted scenarios and sent them to live. There are references in a memoir by Hector bill IFO, who was a gay expect writer who met he had mentored as a writer, who apparently left New Zealand because of the shooting. In early 1927, met he signed the visitor's book at New Zealand house and true newzealand fashion the next person to sign the book was the prosecutor in the 1920s shooting case. And so the story appeared and truth, which concluded that it would be thought that any man with a grain of common decency would only be too glad to remain in restful obscurity for the remaining span of life. But this was not to be because of the sensational circumstances of Nikki's death and Berlin front page news around the world like he was killed in the street fighting known as blood my bloody May. This began after the Communist Party organized demonstrations on the first of May and defiance of a government ban. When the police disperse the crowds violence erupted. The violence escalated and became concentrated in two working class neighborhoods of Berlin. Noriko invading. By the Third of May both areas affected by the violence was sealed off by place were introduced a traffic and lights band with a strict curfew. Trains didn't stop and residents were told to shut their windows and keeping doors. Within the areas protesters use paving stones, trees and concrete advertising billboards to build barricades, innocent bystanders were caught up in the violence and among the dead. On the third day were two women shot after they stepped onto the balcony and Nikon. Sifton delma the Berlin correspondent for The Sunday experience hired Nike as a stringer so that he could cover the riots in both areas. Mickey was also working as an English language teacher and he ignored warnings from his teaching colleagues before he joined Delmar on the The Third of May after they visited both theories, the two went back to domas flat for supper and then down the st. Mackey back down to Nikon to check on what was happening. He was shot in the stomach probably by a police sniper in an apartment hundred and 10 meters away. He was dead before help arrived. He was the last of more than 30 people killed in the riots and the only person not from those two neighborhoods. No police were killed or shot leading some journalists to speculate on whether the protesters even had any guns. widespread criticism of the police intensified after Makey was killed. And unlike the other victims, he was well educated professional [00:37:33] and a foreigner. [00:37:35] After Mickey's death, delma challenged place accounts of what happened and his comments were widely reported overseas. This was very embarrassing for the Russian government, particularly when the British Embassy asked for an explanation. The police investigation concluded that Nikki was warned not to go into the danger zone and that this together with his lack of knowledge of German mean he was responsible for his own death. [00:37:57] That Delmas memoir, [00:37:57] which was written many years later discussion. What he found and when he eventually found Makey The morning after the shooting, and there's a visual record of what delma saw an investigation file in a bill and archive. At last I found them stretched out on a marble slab and the mortuary of the neucom District infirmary. There he lay his mouth gaping open his smash spectacles at the foot of the slave with his papers. As wisping wispy graying hair was ruffled and sticky. destroy his shoes pointed stiffly sky was showing the holes in the soles on the slaves behind his I counted seven Germans, the other Nikon victims of the quiet night. Five days later on May the eighth at half past 10 in the morning, Mackey's funeral was held at the Matai Cemetery in Schoenberg. At least one New Zealander was there Tom Sullivan a champion oarsmen who was a professional coach with the Berlin overeater Club. That today this headstone is no longer in the cemetery and it's unclear exactly where the grave is a 1970 the growth was at a cemetery was taken over by the city of Berlin and it closed completely in 2005. The graveyards been reduced in size several times. And the German practice of reusing graves after 25 years makes it difficult to identify where the plot would have been. Met. He was living one street away from Christopher Isherwood, who famously said Berlin mean boys. We don't know whether the boys of Berlin were affected or make his decision to move to Berlin, but we do know that the Germans called him an urban toiler, praising his sense of adventure as a Belton Boomer globetrotter. So to conclude, what all these fragments of evidence add up to, I think they help give shape to the life and times of a figure who was eliminated from the historical record. They under they also underscore and highlight the historical significance of Nikki's public declaration of his homosexuality. Now back when I began researching the story, I was very keen not to label macky as a homosexual, guided by the idea that people should be seen in the context of their own times. But over time, I've come to see the significance of the use of his use of the term homosexual in the 1920s trial coined in Germany in 1969. The word homosexual was first used in Britain in the 1890s, but wasn't commonly referred to here until later in the 1920s. In 1895, homosexuality was famously associated with the trial of Oscar Wilde. Alleged homosexual conduct in the army of Wilhelm in Germany was at the center of the elenberg affair from 1907 to 1909. Now both of these scandals have been described by a historian called James stately as labeling events that dramatically accelerated the emergence of the modern homosexual identity by stimulating and structuring public perceptions of sexual normalcy and abnormal see. The shooting and walking away in 1920 is New Zealand's labeling event and heralded the arrival of the homosexual as a concept and as an identity in this country. Before this case, references to homosexuality were very rare in New Zealand newspapers. All of the identified reports before the major case relate either to the wild case or the erland big fear in Germany. So the references to the woman or a sensation appear to be the first indigenous use of the term and apparently among the first references in Australian newspapers. This, I believe points to the reason for the enduring interest in the story. As it's become easier to talk about that horrible crime not to be named among Christians, there have been more narratives about Maggie's fall from grace, the earlier work by Helen shore and Bill Mitchell was never published. Since then. We've had William Rosen's essays and the dictionary of New Zealand biography references by Michael king and his biography of Frank Sturgis and and the penguin History of New Zealand. And Phil Parkinson seminal article in pink triangle magazine in 1985. Nike story has inspired other more imaginative retellings featuring in two plays and fiction, including Maurice J's 2003 novel The scornful moon so next time we're going to go and have a look at the stone at the sergeant gallery. At first glance nothing seems to mess with the career a marble stone beside the entrance to the surgeon heart gallery unveiled by the Governor General on the 20th of September 1917, Mackey's name and title are cut into the stone together with the names of others involved with building the gallery. run your fingers over the stone, and you'll discover a concave depression around Mackey's name and title, a tangible reminder of the earlier removal. The missing elements on the stone apparently went unnoticed until the late 1970s when they became the focal point of a protest by the one and only gay rights group. During one Gay Pride Week, the members of the group made a wreath and the shape of a pink triangle, the international symbol of gay rights and pride beneath the stone. Apparently the protest anger they may run Russell, we've been considering restoring the name. And it wasn't until 1985 during the term of the next mere dog Tony, that the name was restored. But by defacing the stone, the city fathers and mothers at inadvertedly given the gay rights group something to protest against creating a foothold in homosexual history. [00:42:57] The foundation stone had become a Lodestone. Physical link back to the time when the homosexual arrived in New Zealand [00:43:04] filled up

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